e-book A Short Grammar of Lithuanian

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Declined like koks, kokia see 2 rows above kelintas, kelinta - which number? It is used like Latin quantus or Russian skol'kiy.

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The Lithuanian Adverb. Adverbs are formed in two ways: from adjectives and from nouns. There are some which are single e.

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The first category is more widely spread in the language. Analytic languages such as Chinese, Korean or English, have suffixed to be added to adjectives to form some adverbs.

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  • Such adverbs, though not declined, have their degrees of comparison: gerai well - geriau better - geriausiai the best way. The other class of adverbs is formed from nouns. As we can see, such adverbs are either of accusative case of nouns or of locative. That a rule, but when studying a language you must learn all these adverbs by heart for their is no way to define which is accusative, which will be locative. But that's a way of learning a language, isn't it? And Lithuanian is just beautiful! You are not sure yet? Then let's get going further!

    It seems natural to see a system of numerals which has only one word for "one", "two", "ten" etc. It is natural for us, because we are Indo-Europeans.

    Lithuanian Lessons in Edinburgh

    But the situation differs quite a lot in other families of languages. Korean, for example, uses three different systems of numerals, so there are different words for "one" when it is used with tables, men and days. Numerals have 4 grades there: like 1,, And I will never even try to describe the Inuit or Gilyak system of numerals, because it is really unbearable there.

    Easy Lithuanian: Accusative Pt. 1/3

    I just try to explain that Lithuanian is not so terrible with its declensions. Numerals are also declined, have genders and cases like nouns or adjectives. Moreover, different numerals have different types of declension, and you need to remember all of them if you want to speak or read a language. Cardinals from 10 are present before nouns which have genitive plural : Man truksta penkiolikos dolaru, - I lack 15 dollars.

    So they also have genitive plural. These numerals are the following:. So different branches uses different words. It is also declined like a 1st class noun. The ordinal numerals have the common Indo-European suffix -t- added to simple cardinals. It is the same in Slavic, Germanic, Celtic and Italic. Another Indo-European feature is the analogue of ordinal numerals with 1st class adjectives. They are also declined, having all the same endings. Some linguists call ordinals "numeral adjectives".

    Like in English, only the last numeral is shaped by - t-. In Lithuanian there is one more category of numerals unique for Indo-European languages. It is called "plural numerals" and are used with nouns which exist only in plural Latin pluralia tantum , like "scissors" or "pants". They are often seen in construction with the word metai "a year" which is used only in plural and literally means "times".

    So "two years" will sound as dveji metai. It's good to remember that, and not only for grammatical, but for colloquial reasons. Numerals can be a source for creation new nouns or names. The days of the week are of numeral origin, they are combined of ordinals and the word "day":. Figures have their own names in Lithuanian, e. But with all this complication of numeral system this all is just a snack for the Lithuanian verb. Take a little rest, and drown back here! The Lithuanian Verb. We must admit, that nowadays none of the existing Indo-European languages keeps the type of verbal structure which existed in the Proto-Indo-European language.

    The Proto-verb had two voices - active and medium, or medio-passive; 4 moods: indicative, subjunctive, optative, imperative some people find more ; up to 6 tenses, a lot of special endings and an augment prefix to form the imperfect, plusquamperfect etc. On early stages of the language, naturally, this system was less complicated, and the process of complicating the language was going on until the 4th or 3th millennium BC, when the back process replaced it - now languages began their movement to the analytic stage, with lessening flexions, decreasing complex forms and less synthetic grammar.

    So the Proto-Indo-European stage at the moment the branches started to grow from it was a culmination of language synthetic development. Lithuanian verbs, though less complex than their ancestor Proto-Indo-European, has quite a lot of flective forms.

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    It possesses, e. In a dictionary you will usually see all three forms of any verb: the infinitive and two 3rd persons. The production of the present and past simple forms are though somehow regular and have rules, but still have got a lot of exceptions which one will have to learn by heart if he wants to to know the language.

    This type of conjugation is the most frequently met in Lithuanian, and it has the largest number of peculiarities which will be described below. Such verbs are not very rare and many of them are often used, but this kind of conjugation has practically no exceptions or peculiar cases. Examples: nore. These verbs are very easy to find and to use. Examples: matyti, mokyti, skaityti. In general you would have to pay attention to this conjugation division, for it is one of the most important moment in Lithuanian verb structure. Below we will describe forms and tenses one by one with short commentaries and some examples for better understanding:.

    The peculiarity of Lithuanian is the joint 3rd person form, with no number distinction. It was caused by the disappearance of two Indo-European endings -t and -nt , so only a vowel remained, and since then all Lithuanian verbs have the same forms for "he does" and "they do". Another sign of analytization.

    Negative forms are created the same way in all tenses and moods. The 1st conjugation verbs have many specific traits somewhere.

    Remember it and don't ask why so. There are many of that sort in Lithuanian, and a veteran student can distinguish them from the first sight.

    Me - not always. Exceptions are very numerous. Some verbs have a suffix in present forms that is hidden in infinitive. The verb skristi to fly has skrenda in present, the verb eiti to go has eina. There's one verb which is a strong exception - practically everywhere in the Indo-European family. So negative and interrogative forms are of the same kind as in the present tense. It is used when the action was regular and happened several or many times in the past. It is similar to the English "used to do", and usually can be translated by using the Past Indefinite tense.

    The -dav- suffix has its parallel in Slavic the only place I found this feature where you can hear Russian byl I was and byval I used to be.

    A short grammar of Lithuanian Download ( Pages | Free )

    This has simple usage, the same as in every other Indo-European language where it remained from Proto-Indo-European stage. In Lithuanian it is formed by adding the suffix -s- to the infinitive stem. Please make sure to follow the naming policy. Dividing books into smaller sections can provide more focus and allow each one to do one thing well, which benefits everyone. The Lithuanian language belongs to the Baltic group of Indoeuropean languages. The other language in this group is Latvian, so if you know Latvian you may find it easy to learn Lithuanian.

    The languages are more different from each other than, for example, different Romance or Germanic languages.