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In contrast to the T. During the wet period, even though ants were predominant in the diet of both lizard species, a considerable volume of lepidopterans, coleopterans and orthopterans was also consumed, characterizing opportunistic predation on arthropods with reproductive cycles concentrated in the rainy months. We can therefore suppose that T. The fact that plant parts leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds account for a sizable portion of the total volume ingested in the diet of Tropidurus species CARVALHO et al.

Published diets of T. Tropidurus hispidus generally feeds on significantly larger prey than T. The two species represent opposite extremes in body size, T.

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The difference in body size between the syntopic lizards T. In contrast, similar sized species T.

Although in T. Significant associations between lizard body size, including head measurements, and prey dimensions have been reported in Tropidurus , as in T. Conversely, for T. Thus, factors other than lizard body size or head measurements may also be important in determining the size of prey consumed by these lizards.

Foraging in Tropidurus reflects a history of sit-and-wait foraging involving a set of associated characteristics in the family Tropiduridae and most of the Iguania COOPER, In this sense, during the dry season, the vegetation of the Caatinga becomes completely dry, reducing foraging sites of T. The lizards wait at these sites with their heads pointing downward and quickly jump onto potential preys sighted moving through the leaf litter accumulated in the rock crevices or around the rocks.

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On the other hand, during the wet season, the Caatinga vegetation is invigorated and produces an abundance of flowers, acting as insect baits for lizards that remain motionless near them. Furthermore, when foraging during the wet season, T. In contrast, T. Tropidurus semitaeniatus also uses rapid movements to attack highly mobile prey such as flies Muscidae and leaf hoppers Cicadellidae when they land on rocky surfaces. This behavior was not observed for T. These differences support the idea that foraging intensity may vary between species, even when they exhibit the same foraging mode GASNIER et al.

This is similar to all other Tropidurids studied e. Nonetheless, focal observations, especially in the wet season, revealed differences in the foraging intensity between T. Furthermore, we found a similar mean number of moves and attacks on prey for T. We conclude that the feeding behavior and diet composition of T. Both species are opportunistic and generalist predators that prey upon arthropods and consume plant material. In summary, the more adverse conditions in the dry season constrain both species to similar hunting strategies, but in the wet season, the different vegetation characteristics and higher food availability result in different hunting strategies.

Carlos F. Rocha, Sandra M.

Foraging: Behavior and Ecology | NHBS Academic & Professional Books

Hartz and an anonymous reviewer provided insightful criticisms on the manuscript. Ribeiro and E. Geomorfologia 43 Observational study of behaviour: sampling methods.

afhealsylesm.tk Behaviour 49 Food resource utilization during periods of low and high food availability in Sceloporus jarrevui Sauria: Iguanidae. Southwestern Naturalist 24 Feeding ecology of Tropidurus torquatus Wied Squamata, Tropiduridae in two areas with different degrees of conservation in Marambaia Island, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern, Brazil.

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Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 24 1 Journal of Herpetology 26 1 Prey chemical discrimination, foraging mode, and phylogeny. Lizard ecology: historical and experimental perspectives. New Jersey, Princeton University Press. Foraging mode, prey chemical discrimination, and phylogeny in lizards. Animal Behaviour 50 Distribution, extent, and evolution of plant consumption by lizards. Journal of Zoology Tropidurus hispidus Calango. Herpetological Review 41 1 CRUZ, F. Herpetological Natural History 6 1 Seasonal and ontogenetic changes in the diet of the Australian skink Egernia stokesii.

Herpetologica 54 3 Realized niche overlap, resource abundance, and intensity of interspecific competition. Lizard ecology: studies of a model organism. Cambridge, Harvard University Press. Foraging ecology of the fringe-toed lizard, Uma inornata , during periods of high and low food abundance. Copeia 4 Sintopy of two Tropidurus lizard species Squamata: Tropiduridae in a rocky cerrado habitat in central Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology 64 4 Feeding ecology of Tropidurus torquatus : ontogenetic shift in plant consumption and seasonal trends in diet. Journal of Herpetology 34 2 Food habits of the Jamaican lizard Anolis opalinus: resource partitioning and seasonal effects examined.

Copeia 2 Foraging activity and diet of four sympatric lizard species in a tropical rainforest. Journal of Herpetology 28 2 HUEY, R.

Ecological consequences of foraging mode. Ecology 62 4 Differences in insect abundance and diversity between wetter and drier sites during a tropical dry season.

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Ecology 49 1 Programs for Ecological Methodology. Version 5. Vancouver, University of British Columbia. The correlates of foraging mode in a community of Brazilian lizards. Herpetologica 41 3 Biota Neotropica 7 2 Copeia 3 NAGY, K. Field energetics and foraging modes of Kalahari lacertid lizards.

Ecology 65 Revista Brasileira de Geografia 34 : The structure of lizard communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4 Tropidurus semitaeniatus NCN. Drinking behavior. Herpetological Review 40 2 Tropidurus hispidus NCN. Minimum size at maturity; Maximum body size.

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Herpetological Review 40 3 Frog predation. Thermal ecology and thermoregulatory behaviour of Tropidurus hispidus and T. Herpetological Journal 20 3 Tropidurus semitaeniatus Squamata: Tropiduridae as a seed disperser of the plant Commiphora leptophloeos Burseraceae in the caatinga of northeastern Brazil. Ventral colored patches in Tropidurus semitaeniatus Squamata, Tropiduridae : sexual dimorphism and association with reproductive cycle.

Journal of Herpetology 44 1 Herpetologia no Brasil I. Seasonal shift in lizard diet: the seasonality in food resources affecting the diet of Liolaemus lutzae Tropiduridae. Brazilian Journal of Biology 67 3 Thermal biology and flight distance of Tropidurus oreadicus Sauria, Iguanidae in an area of Amazonian Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology 68 1 Ecologia de restingas e lagoas costeiras. The ecological significance of sexual dimorphism in size in the lizard Anolis conspersus.

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