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- Mongol invasions of Japan - Wikipedia!
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ISBN 13: 9781518687938
Seller assumes all responsibility for this listing. Item specifics Condition: Like New: A book that looks new but has been read. Cover has no visible wear, and the dust jacket if applicable is included for hard covers. May be very minimal identifying marks on the inside cover. If you appoint me, I encourage you to the extent of my power. I am building ships and encourage your conquest of Japan. According to the Yuanshi, the Yuan fleet set out with an estimated 15, Mongol and Chinese soldiers and 1,—8, Korean soldiers in large vessels and — smaller craft along with several thousand sailors, although figures vary considerably depending on the source and many modern historians consider the numbers exaggerated.
The Mongols and Koreans subsequently invaded Iki. Tairano Takakage, the Governor of Iki, fought the invaders with about of his cavalrymen, but he killed himself after his unit was defeated. The Japanese coalition force opposing them included armed samurai each with a warband and likely numbered between 3, and 6, strong. Conlan estimated that both armies numbered around 3, each not including the Yuan sailors. It had been approximately 50 years since the last major combat event in Japan Go-Toba 's adherents in , leaving not a single Japanese general with adequate experience in moving large bodies of troops.
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In addition, the style of warfare that was customary within feudal Japan involved single combat , even on large battlefields. The Mongols possessed foreign weapons which included superior long-range armaments the short composite bows that the Mongols were famous for, with poisoned arrows, fire arrows, bow-launched arrows with small rocket engines attached and gunpowder-packed exploding arrows and grenades with ceramic shells thrown by slings to terrify the enemy's horses , and easily had the upper hand in open land combat.
The Japanese force at Hakata Bay needed time to await the arrival of reinforcements, with which they would be able to overwhelm the Mongol invaders. Around nightfall, the Mongol ship captains suggested that the land force reembark in order to avoid the risk of being marooned on Japanese soil.
Hong Dagu, the commander of the exhausted Mongolian army, further decided in a military meeting for withdrawal from Japan. For the ships at that time the navigation to north, i. However, they pressed ahead the retreating action in night and met a stormy wind. Some accounts offer casualty reports that suggest Mongol ships were lost. However, small Japanese boats were much more swift and maneuverable than Mongol ships, and the Japanese were able to board the remaining ships of the crippled Mongol army.
The samurai approached and boarded the ships under cover of darkness and fell on the invaders ferociously.
Invasion: The Warrior Chronicles, Book 4 (Unabridged) on Apple Books
In the small confines of the ships, during the predawn darkness, the Mongols trained as cavalrymen and horse archers were unable to bring their bows to bear effectively. However, the long, thin Japanese swords got stuck and snapped off in the thick, boiled leather armor of the Mongols, causing Japanese blacksmiths to reevaluate their swords after the first invasion.
This led to the beginning of the divergence of the katana from existing tachi swords in the 13th and 14th century. A story widely known in Japan is that back in Kamakura, Tokimune was overcome with fear when the invasion finally came, and wanting to overcome his cowardice, he asked Mugaku Sogen , his Zen master also known as Bukko, for advice. Bukko replied he had to sit in meditation to find the source of his cowardice in himself. Tokimune went to Bukko and said, "Finally there is the greatest happening of my life. Bukko responded with satisfaction, "It is true that the son of a lion roars as a lion!
The Mongolians slaughtered many dwellers of Tsushima island. On October 16 to 17, the Mongolian army attacked the base of the Sashi clan. The Mongolians escaped to Sohara , after losing about soldiers. Thousands of Mongolian soldiers were massed in Torikai-Gata. The Mongolian casualties of this battle were about 3, Due to the defeat in battle of Torikai-Gata, the Mongolian army was exhausted and withdrew to their ships.
On seeing this situation, the Japanese army engaged in night attacks and killed many soldiers. Finally, Hong Dagu decided to withdraw to the Yuan-held continent. In the midst of withdrawal, they met a stormy wind, most of their ships sank and many soldiers drowned. Starting in , the shogunate increased efforts to defend against the second invasion, which they thought was sure to come.
Religious services increased and the Hakozaki Shrine , having been destroyed by the Yuan forces, was rebuilt. A coastal watch was instituted and rewards were given to some valiant samurai. Tokimune responded by having them sent to Kamakura and then beheading them. Expecting another invasion, on Feb 21, , the Imperial Court ordered all temples and shrines to pray for victory over the Yuan. In the spring of , the Mongols sent two separate forces.
Per the Yuanshi, an impressive force of ships containing 17, sailors, 10, Korean soldiers, and 15, Mongols and Chinese set out from Masan , Korea, while an even larger force of , sailed from southern China in 3, ships, for a combined force of , soldiers and sailors. Japanese sources also mention , men in the invading force. Professor Thomas Conlan states that they were likely exaggerated by an order of magnitude implying 14, soldiers and sailors , expressing skepticism that a medieval kingdom managed an invasion on the scale of D-Day during World War II across over ten times the distance, and questions if even 10, soldiers attacked Japan in He puts forward the alternative figure of 70, soldiers and sailors, half of what is spoken of in the Yuanshi and later Japanese claims.
Rather, he only states that given the contributions of the Southern Song, the second invasion should have been around three times larger than the first. The Mongols' plan called for an overwhelming coordinated attack by the combined imperial Yuan fleets. The Chinese fleet of the Yuan was delayed by difficulties in provisioning and manning the large number of ships they had. The Japanese army was heavily outnumbered, but had fortified the coastal line with two-meter high walls, and was easily able to repulse the auxiliaries that were launched against it.
Furthermore, it is now believed that the destruction of the Mongol fleet was greatly facilitated by an additional factor.