Relationships between Pisa and Venice were not always characterized by rivalry and antagonism. Over the centuries, the two republics signed several agreements concerning their zones of influence and action, to avoid hindering each other. On 13 October the Doge of Venice and a representative of the Pisan consuls signed an agreement for the reciprocal non-interference in Adriatic and Tyrrhenian affairs, and in Pisa and Venice concluded a treaty in which they reaffirmed the respective zones of influence. Between and , during the siege of Pisa by Florence, Venice went to rescue of the Pisans, following a policy of safeguarding Italian territory from foreign intervention.
The relationship between Genoa and Venice was almost continuously competitive and hostile, both economically and militarily. Until the beginning of the 13th century, hostilities were limited to rare acts of piracy and isolated skirmishes. In Venice and Genoa reached an agreement to end the piracy and to safeguard each other.
Genoa was guaranteed the right to trade in the eastern imperial lands, a new and profitable market. Conflict between the two Republics reached a violent crisis in the struggle at Saint-Jean d'Acre for ownership of the Saint Sabas monastery. The Genoese occupied it in , beginning hostilities with the sacking of the Venetian neighbourhood and the destruction of the ships docked there.
Venice first agreed to an alliance with Pisa regarding their common interests in Syria and Palestine, but then counter-attacked, destroying the fortified monastery. The flight of the Genoese and of the baron Philip of Montfort , ruler of the Christian principality of Syria, concluded the first phase of the punitive expedition.
The Crusades: A Complete History
Just one year later, the three maritime powers fought an uneven conflict in the waters facing Saint-Jean d'Acre. Almost all the Genoese galleys were sunk and 1, fighters and sailors were killed. The Genoese replied with new alliances. His expansionist project suited the Genoese. The Nicaean fleet and army conquered and occupied Constantinople, causing the collapse of the Latin Empire of Constantinople less than sixty years after its creation.
Genoa replaced Venice in the monopoly of commerce with the Black Sea territories. This period of conflict between Genoa and Venice ended with the Battle of Curzola of won by Genoa , in which the Venetian admiral Andrea Dandolo was taken prisoner. To avoid the shame of arriving in Genoa in shackles, Dandolo committed suicide by smashing his head against the oar to which he was tied.
A year later, the Republics signed a peace treaty in Milan.
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Towards the end of the 14th century, Cyprus was occupied by the Genoese and ruled by the signoria of Pietro II of Lusignano , while the smaller island of Tenedos , an important port of call on the Bosphorous and Black Sea route, was conceded by Andronikos IV Palaiologos to Genoa in place of the concession of his father John V Palaiologos to Venice. These two events fuelled the resumption of hostilities between the two maritime Republics, which were expanding from the east to the west of the Mediterranean.
The conflict was named the War of Chioggia because the Venetians, after an initial success, were defeated in Pula by the Genoese, who occupied Chioggia and besieged Venice. The Venetians established a new fleet and besieged the Genoese in Chioggia in turn, forcing them to surrender in The war ended in favour of the Venetians with the Peace of Turin on 8 April This event aroused strong feelings that inspired Pope Nicholas V to plan a crusade. To realize his idea, the pope mediated between the two coalitions that were continuing to battle in Tuscany and Lombardy.
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While Popes Callistus II and Pius II tried to progress their predecessor's idea and were canvassing the states of the Italic League and other European powers to interest them in a crusade, the Ottomans defeated many Genoese and Venetian colonies. These events showed the superiority of the new great naval and military Ottoman power in the eastern Mediterranean and forced the two Italian maritime republics to seek a new destiny.
Genoa found it the growth of international finance, Venice in land expansion. Due to the rivalry of the Italian States, two great coalitions were formed, and foreign intervention in the peninsula was steadily increasing. Most of the Christian fleet consisted of Venetian ships, around galleys. The Battle of Lepanto was fought from midday on 7 October until the following dawn and ended in victory for the Christian League. To begin with, these two maritime republics, close to one another on the Tyrrhenian Sea, collaborated as allies against the threat of Arab expansion.
However, their later rivalry dominated the western Mediterranean. At the beginning of the second millennium, Muslim armies had advanced into Sicily , and were trying to conquer Calabria and Sardinia. Once that was achieved, disputes soon broke out over control of the conquered territories. Due to the limited forces available, the alliance was unable to occupy the large Tyrrhenian island for long.
The many disputes, even the armed ones, were set aside in when they reunited to fight their common enemy.
In the summer of the same year, a massive fleet composed of two hundred galleys from Genoa and Pisa, with some from Gaeta, Salerno and Amalfi, set sail for the Mediterranean coast of Africa. The fleet mounted a successful offensive against Mahdia on 6 August On 21 April the Pope elevated the archdiocese of Pisa to the rank of metropolitan archdiocese and placed the bishops of Corsica under its authority.
That same victorious expedition persuaded Pope Urban II that a large crusade to liberate the Holy Land would be possible. The expedition was very successful and freed the Balearic Islands from the Muslims. As a sign of gratitude, the pope granted many privileges to the two republics. The Pisan archbishop was granted primacy over Sardinia, in addition to Corsica. The papal concessions to the archbishop of Pisa greatly increased the fame of the Tuscan republic throughout the Mediterranean, but at the same time aroused Genoese envy, which soon developed into conflict.
In , the Genoese attacked some Pisan galleys, beginning a bloody war on sea and land. It lasted until , interrupted by several truces that were sometimes observed and sometimes violated.
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The clashes were brought to an end by sharing authority over the Corsican dioceses between the two cities. When Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa came to Italy to oppose the power of the Italian cities, Genoa gave its support to the imperial cause, although with slight reservations, while Pisa made its support conditional on the emperor taking part in the siege of Milan. In and Frederick I granted Pisa great privileges, such as control of the Tyrrhenian coast as far as Civitavecchia.
This reignited Genoa's resentment and rivalry, which once again developed into open conflict. There was a pause in the conflict on Frederick's fourth descent into Italy, but it resumed soon after his departure. The agreement favoured Genoa, expanding its overseas territories. From to Genoa and Pisa reverted to fighting each other. A decisive naval battle occurred on 6 August Pisan and Genoese fleets fought the whole day in what became known as the Battle of Meloria.
The Genoese emerged victorious, while the Pisan galleys, having received no help, were forced to retreat to the port of Pisa. Prisoners taken by the Genoese were in the order of thousands. Among them was the poet Rustichello da Pisa , who met Marco Polo captured during the Battle of Curzola and wrote down the adventures of the Venetian explorer.
The Battle of Meloria greatly reduced the power of the Pisan Republic, which never regained its leading role in the western Mediterranean. Pisa had lost thousands of young men in the battle, causing a population collapse. Venice did not intervene to help its ally Pisa in its crisis. Some historians [ who? In the 14th century, Pisa changed from a commune to a signoria. Fazio Novello della Gherardesca , an enlightened aristocrat, improved relations with Florence, the Pope and Genoa. The treaty with Genoa was just the first of a series of commercial agreements.
But in the first years of the following century, under the rule of Gabriello Maria Visconti , the city of Pisa was besieged by Milan, Florence, Genoa and France. Giovanni Gambacorta took advantage of this to rise to power, but he secretly negotiated surrender with the besiegers. On 6 October Pisa became a possession of Florence, which thus realized its long-held goal of access to the sea.
https://ufn-web.com/wp-includes/85/installer-un-logiciel-espion-sur-galaxy-note-4.php That was the end of the Pisan Republic. Amalfi had already lost complete autonomy from the second half of the 11th century, although it continued running its commercial routes and enjoying a large degree of administrative autonomy, at least in this period. Under the protection of the Norman William II , third Duke of Apulia, in October the administrators of Amalfi reached a profitable commercial agreement with the neighbouring Pisa, to collaborate in the protection of their common interests in the Tyrrhenian.
This agreement was the outcome of a decades-old friendship with the Tuscan republic. However, Amalfi had no army of its own to protect its commercial interests. That is why Amalfian ships are not often reported to have been engaged in military action against other maritime republics.
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That war ended in favour of Roger II, who gained recognition of his rights over the territories of South Italy, but it was a severe blow for Amalfi, which lost both its fleet and its political autonomy. Commercial competition among Venice, Ancona and Ragusa was very strong because all of them bordered the Adriatic Sea.
They fought open battles on more than one occasion. Venice, aware of its major economic and military power, disliked competition from other maritime cities in the Adriatic. Several Adriatic ports were under Venetian rule, but Ancona and Ragusa retained their independence. To avoid succumbing to Venetian rule, these two republics made multiple and lasting alliances.